What is Thoracic Outlet Syndrome?

Outline

Please remember to read the disclaimer advice at the bottom of the page.

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a painful condition in which swelling of the thoracic outlet can compress the nerve and blood vessel bundles that stretch from your neck to your fingers.

The thoracic outlet is a space between your collarbone and your first rib, just in from the top of your arm bone. Thoracic outlet syndrome arises when the nerves and blood vessels in this space become compressed or “impinged.”

You can develop thoracic outlet syndrome, or TOS, through sports- or work-related repetitive motions or after suffering from a traumatic accident such as a traffic collision. There are several different ways in which doctors and therapists can help you to ease the pain caused by TOS.

My experience

I have worked on tens of clients with diagnoses of thoracic outlet, or who have TOS-like symptoms.

On assessment, we often find that there is a tight, overactive pectoralis minor muscle (see diagram above), and potentially also tight pectoralis major, subclavius, and anterior deltoid muscles.

When these muscles round or pull forward the shoulder, they pull on the ligaments that connect the shoulder to the collarbone. This can pull the collarbone down directly onto the blood vessels and nerves that travel beneath, compressing and impinging them.

When blood flow is decreased, there is often a sensation of cold, tingling, or numbness down the arm and into the hand.

If nerves are compressed, then the first three fingers of the hand might feel a numb or tingling pain. Sometimes grip strength decreases or the ability to feel something you are holding decreases, or it might be difficult to type, write with a pen, or use tools.

For neurogenic TOS there can be sever muscle wasting at the base of the thumb, called “Gilliatt-Sumner hand.”

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Types of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

There are tow main types of thoracic outlet syndrome as well as one type that is still up for debate. If the swelling affects your nerves, it is called neurogenic or neurological TOS. If it affects your blood vessels, it is vascular TOS. When there is no discernible cause yet still pain in that area, it is nonspecific TOS. Although some experts do not believe that nonspecific TOS is a true condition, others argue that it is very common.

How does TOS happen?

Thoracic outlet syndrome happens when the superior thoracic outlet is compressed. This outlet is a neurovascular bundle that passes between the anterior and middle scalene muscles at the base of the neck.It is more common in women than in men, and between the ages of 20 to 50.

The most common cause of thoracic outlet syndrome is trauma, which can be sudden or repetitive. With sudden trauma, such as a fall on an outstretched hand (FOOSH injury) there may be a fracture in the clavicle. Repetitive trauma, on the other hand, happens to go to have to do certain tasks over and over again using the wrist and the arms, especially when your arms are out in front of you for long periods. Examples are truck drivers, factory workers, or typists.

Those who are at risk for developing TOS are people who are in non-ergonomic postures for several hours working on computers and those who often have to raise their arms overhead, such as athletes, electricians, musicians and rock climbers.

Conventional approaches to treatment of TOS

For most people with TOS conventional doctors will start you with a conservative treatment program. This involves physical therapy, relaxation techniques, and anti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen. You may also be prescribed muscle relaxants.

Outcomes can vary. If these treatments do not alleviate your suffering, they may recommend more invasive methods. For vascular thoracic outlet syndrome, you could have surgery with an anterior supraclavicular approach. A surgeon makes a cut just under your neck and then examines you for signs of trauma. The surgeon they repair blood vessels or remove any fibrous bands that may be interfering with your circulation.

Another surgical method is the trans-axillary approach. Here, the incision is closer to your chest so that the surgeon can cut out any portion of your rib that is compressing your nerves or blood vessels. If you have advanced thoracic outlet syndrome, your road to recovery may be very long and painful, as well as costly.

Keeping in mind that I am not a surgeon, and have no medical training, it is my strong opinion that this type of rib removal surgery is barbaric and unnecessary.

Rib removal surgery has become uncommon by now, but some older surgeons may still suggest it. In such a case, I recommend getting a second opinion.

My approach to treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome

To help the problem, the key is to create more space in a larger opening of the thoracic outlet area to take pressure off the nerves and blood vessels. In most cases, relaxing the pec-major, subclavius, anterior deltoid, and especially the pec-minor and scalene muscles, is absolutely fundamental to lifting the collarbone and shoulder bones away from the first rib, thus decompressing the thoracic outlet.

Other neck and shoulder muscles may also be involved, so it may take several treatments to resolve the condition.

Myotherapists, osteopaths, chiropractors, physiotherapists, and remedial therapists like me have the training to assess and treat thoracic outlet syndrome. Your therapist can examine the area to find which bones are misaligned or moving improperly.

In the following video I go through an assessment sequence that investigates the entire nerve chain from the neck to the hand, including the thoracic outlet, to find out exactly where sites of compression exist:

Poor posture is involved with the majority of people suffering from thoracic outlet syndrome. Therapeutic exercises to improve posture and mobility of the upper body are therefore essential.

Stretching and nerve gliding

Stretching is also essential to relieving TOS so as it is done properly. This will help reduce the compression of the thoracic cavity, decrease impingement of the blood vessels and nerves, and realign the muscles, bones, and ligaments that can cause thoracic outlet syndrome.

Nerve gliding is also an effective treatment method for TOS, and I show you how to do this in treatment. You extend the affected arm out to the side and tilt your head to the opposite side. You’ll feel a gentle, vaguely painful pull on the affected side when you do this. Hold for a very brief second, then come back to neutral posture. Repeat ten times.

Following nerve gliding you should feel at least a temporary reduction in your symptoms.


DISCLAIMER

This article is meant to be advisory only and is not a method of diagnosis or assessment of thoracic outlet syndrome or any physical condition. If you suspect you may have symptoms such as those outlined above, GO SEE A PROFESSIONAL and get assessed!

There is NO substitute for hands-on assessment of any physical condition or disfunction.

If you have any questions about my thoughts, opinions or experiences regarding thoracic outlet or similar conditions, head across to my Facebook page and post a comment, or send me a tweet on Twitter.

Or, if you would like a comprehensive assessment by me, click the link below and book yourself in for an appointment. I’ll be very glad to help however I can.

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